Spring 2005 Dr. Vincent E. McHale
POSC 370G/470G Office:  Mather House #222


The flow of information to policy makers, particularly on critical areas of foreign affairs, has been greatly influenced by what intelligence agencies generate and by their posture toward foreign policy issues.  This course will examine the role of strategic intelligence and intelligence agencies as a tool of United States foreign policy.  The course will cover the life-cycle of strategic intelligence from the collection of data to the formulation of analytic judgments.  It will focus on the impact of the intelligence process and the products of intelligence on foreign policy making, and hence upon relations among nations.  The emphasis will be on contemporary intelligence issues and processes, but will include the formative period of modern American intelligence in the post-1945 era.

Lectures, reading materials, and media presentations will review the evolution, structure, and current responsibilities of the U.S. intelligence community, as well as compare the intelligence apparatus of various nations — both hostile and friendly.  Visual presentations and occasional guest lecturers will augment the course.

The public image of the intelligence community has been strongly influenced by the impressions conveyed in contemporary fiction and film.  While most fiction conveys an inaccurate image of the world of intelligence, some can furnish ideas and interests of value, particularly if the materials have a factual basis.  Tentative plans have been made for the class to view one or twoclassic “Hollywood-type” films concerned with intelligence subject matter. Dates, times, and places for viewing the films will be announced.  Class discussion will center on the intelligence themes and tradecraft portrayed in each film.


There will be a midterm and a final examination on the dates specified on the syllabus.  Both examinations will be primarily essay in nature, drawing upon the lectures, assigned reading materials, and media presentations.  Each student will also prepare one short research paper of approximately five (5) to seven (7) pages in length, and will participate in a group exercise.  The details and format of each assignment will be described in a separate handout. Graduate students will be assigned additional work and will participate in the group exercise.

Regular class attendance and participation in class discussion are expected.  Attendance after the “drop-add” period will be monitored.  Since the lectures will be independent of the reading, it will be most difficult for students to master the subject matter without regular class attendance.  Students with more than three (3) unexcused absences, or those with excessive class absences will have their final course grade reduced by one letter grade.  The final course grade will be based upon the following weighted distribution:

class attendance and participation (10%)

attendance at media presentations and guest lectures (5%)

midterm examination (30%)

paper assignments (25% averaged separately)

final examination (30%)


Important Notice

Academic dishonesty (plagiarism, cheating on examinations, etc.) is a serious offense that can result in loss of credit, suspension, and possibly expulsion from the university.  All suspected cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Dean of Undergraduate Studies.

Office Hours:

Students are encouraged to consult with the instructor regarding any problem they may be having in the course.  This can be done during regular office hours (Monday and Wednesday, 3:00 – 3:30 p.m., Mather House 222) or by making an appointment.  Questions or personal messages can be left on extension 2425.  The instructor can also be contacted via e-mail (user = “vem“).  Messages and/or queries will be answered usually within 24 hours.

Reading Material:

The following have been assigned as texts for the course:

Mark Lowenthal, Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy (Congressional Quarterly, 2003).

The 9/11 Report (St, Martin’s Press paperback edition, 2004)

Students seeking additional information or relevant examples pertaining to the topic under discussion should consult the readings marked with an asteriskl (*) on the syllabus.

There is a voluminous and ever-growing literature on intelligence subject matter. Students seeking additional reading information on the subject of intelligence should consult the following annotated bibliographies:

George C. Constantinides, Intelligence and Espionage:  An Analytical Bibliography (1983).

R. G. Rocca and J. J. Dziak, Bibliography on Soviet Intelligence and Security Services (1985).

Bruce and Susan Water, Gerald Hopple (eds.), United States Intelligence:  An Encyclopedia(1989).

Frank McGuire, Security Intelligence Sourcebook (1990).

Wendell L. Minnick, Spies and Provocateurs:  A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Persons Conducting Espionage and Covert Action, 1946-1991 (1992).

Marjorie Cline et al., Scholar’s Guide to Intelligence Literature:  Bibliography of the Russell J. Bowen Collection, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. (1983).

N. H. Petersen, American Intelligence, 1775-1990: Bibliographical Guide  (1992).

Michael Parrish, Soviet Security and Intelligence Organizations, 1917-1990  (1992).

Electronic Databases and Web Sites:

Several computerized databases on intelligence based on open sources have appeared in recent years.  Among the best are the following:

Leo Carl, International Dictionary of Intelligence, 2nd edition (1993).  16,466 entries

Leo Carl, The CIA Insider’s Dictionary of US and Foreign Intelligence (1996).  9,075 entries

Ralph McGehee, CIABASE (1993).  7 megabytes of annotated entries

Interesting World Wide Web sites dealing with intelligence include the following:

CIA Home Page


FBI Home Page


British GCHQ Home Page


IntelWeb-The WWWsiteofIntelligence


Strategic Intelligence – Loyola University


Open Source Solutions


US Congress – HPSCI Staff Report – “Preparing for the 21st Century: An Appraisal of US Intelligence”


Intelligence Reform Project – Aspin/Brown Commission Report – US intelligence budget


Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO)


CIA Documents – Public


Web-based Intelligence Bibliography


Wilson Center Cold War History Project – Intelligence Section


Additional sites can be found in Lowenthal, Appendix I.


Lecture Topics and Reading Assignments


            A.    Espionage and intelligence in ancient and pre-modern times

            B.    The origins of modern secret intelligence systems in the 19th century

            C.    World War I and the pre-World War II period

            D.    World War II

            E.    Post-World War II to the present


                   1.     purpose, priorities, and targeting

                   2.     technology and tradecraft

                   3.     the intelligence profession

                   4.     national characteristics in intelligence work

                   5.     the mass media and public involvement


Lowenthal,chapter 1.                                                                 

*  Sun Tzu, “The Use of Spies” (written circa 400-320 B.C.)

*  Joshua, 2:24 (Old Testament)

Further Reference (not required reading):

Charles D. Ameringer, U.S. Foreign Intelligence:  The Secret Side of American History                                   

V. Buranelli et al., Spy/Counterspy:  An Encyclopedia of Espionage

Allen Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence

J. Haswell, Spies and Spymasters:  A Concise History of Intelligence

Philip Knightley, The Second Oldest Profession

Harry Howe Ransom, The Intelligence Establishment

 Richard W. Rowan, The Story of Secret Service

 J. W. Thompson and S. K. Padover, Secret Diplomacy:  Espionage and Cryptography 1500-1815

Ralph E. Weber, U.S. Diplomatic Codes and Ciphers, 1775-1938


            A.    Overview of U.S. intelligence:  From the Revolution to the Present

            B.    The crucible of World War II:  failures and successes

            C.    Espionage, secret intelligence, and the Cold War

            D.    The National Security Act of 1947

                   1.     meaning and impact on U.S. intelligence

                   2.     resulting evolution of the U.S. intelligence community

                   3.     legal aspects of intelligence-gathering

            E.    The 1980s and 1990s:  decades of the spy

            F.    Post-Cold War and Post 9/11 developments


Lowenthal, chapter 2.

Further Reference:

John Bakeless, Turncoats, Traitors and Heroes

George S. Bryan, The Spy in America

Daniel N. Hoffman, Governmental Secrecy and the Founding Fathers

Rhodi Jeffreys-Jones, American Espionage: From Secret Service to CIA

Harnett T. Kane, Spies for the Blue and Gray

Sherman Kent, Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy

Bradley F. Smith, The Shadow Warriors

Herbert O. Yardley, The American Black Chamber


            A.    The U.S. intelligence community:  organization, functions, and responsibilities

            B.    Intelligence and the National Security Council (NSC)

            C.    Congressional oversight and the budget process

            D.    Organizational rivalries

            E.    Cooperative arrangements with foreign governments

            F.    Defining the relationship between intelligence analysis and policy support


Lowenthal, chapters 3, 4, 9, and 10.

Use your Internet access to scan the information on organization at the following Web site: http://www.fas.org/irp/agency.html

Further Reference:        

James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace

Mark  M. Lowenthal, U.S. Intelligence:  Evolution and Anatomy (2nd ed.)

G.W. Hopple and B. Watson, The Military Intelligence Community

J. T. Richelson and D. Ball, The Ties That Bind:  Intelligence Cooperation between the UKUSACountries     


            A.    Open sources

            B.    Human sources (HUMINT)

            C.    Technical sources (SIGINT, COMINT, ELINT)

            D.    Codes and ciphers

            E.    Clandestine collection and operations (covert action)

            F.    “Secret Warriors” and counter-terrorism


Lowenthal, chapters 5, 6, and 8

Further Reference:        

William Burrows, Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security

Ray Cline, Secrets, Spies, and Scholars

Steven Emerson, Secret Warriors:  Inside the Covert Military Operations of the Reagan Era

David Kahn, The Codebreakers:  The Story of Secret Writing

Lauren Paine, The Technology of Espionage

Zell Stanley, An Annotated Bibliography of the Open Literature on Deception (reference work)

J.W.R. Taylor and D. Mondey, Spies in the Sky

Final Report and Hearings of the Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operation With Respect to Intelligence Activities, 1975-1976


            A.    Planning and direction

            B.    Collection

            C.    Processing

            D.    Production and analysis

            E.    Dissemination


Lowenthal, chapter 4

*”The Art of Intelligence Analysis” (CIA reprint)


* * * * * * * * *  MID – TERM EXAMINATION  (March 2, 2005)  * * * * * * * * *



            A.    Domestic surveillance

            B.    National security and hostile intelligence services

            C.    Classification

            D.    Legal issues in counterintelligence

            E.    Counterintelligence and covert action


Lowenthal, chapter 7

Review Mahl, Desparate Deception, chapters 7, 8, and 9

*Scan Godson, Dirty Tricks or Trump Cards

Further Reference:        

Griffin Bell (former Attorney General), Taking Care of the Law

John T. Ellif, The Reform of the FBI Intelligence Operations

Robert Lamphere, The FBI-KGB War:  A Special Agent’s Story

John C. Masterman, The Double Cross System in the War of 1939 to 1945

Ian Sayer and Douglas Botting, America’s Secret Army

Clifford Stall, The Cuckoo’s Egg


            A.    National characteristics and the Russian intelligence service

            B.    Development of the secret State Security Service (1826)

            C.    The KGB  and its origins

                   1.     post-revolutionary organization:  the CHEKA

                   2.     GPU, OGPU, NKVD, NKGB, MGB, KGB (from 1953)

                   3.     The new Russian intelligence service (RIS)

            D.    The functioning of the former KGB and its successor(s)

                   1.     the main directorates

                   2.     war by other means — active measures and “wet operations”

                   3.     scientific and technical collection

                   4.     prisons and internal security

                   5.     operational performance

            E.    Former Soviet military intelligence:  the GRU and its successor

            F.    Russian intelligence in the post Soviet period and beyond


*Janes Intelligence Review article

Further Reference:        

John Barron, KGB:  The Secret Work of Soviet Agents

Robert Conquest, Inside Stalin’s Secret Police:  NKVD Politics, 1936-1939

W. R. Corson and R. T. Crowley, The New KGB:  Engine of Soviet Power

Jeffrey T. Richelson, Sword and Shield:  The Soviet Intelligence and Security Apparatus

Christopher Andrew and Oleg Gordievsky, KGB:  The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations From Lenin to Gorbachev


            A.    Major differences between U.S. and foreign intelligence agencies

            B.    Unique intelligence problems associated with foreign agencies

            C.    Selected foreign intelligence services:  friendly and hostile

                   1.     United Kingdom

                   2.     Canada and Australia

                   3.     France

                   4.     Italy

                   5.     Germany

                   6.     Israel

                   7.     Japan

                   8.     China

                   9.     Eastern Europe


Lowenthal, chapter 15               

Use your Internet access to explore the foreign intelligence agencies links at the following web site:  http://www.loyola.edu/dept/politics/intel.html

Further Reference:        

Christopher Andrew, Her Majesty’s Secret Service (United Kingdom)

Richard Deacon, The Israeli Secret Service

Richard Deacon, A History of the Japanese Secret Service

R. Faligat and R. Krauffer, The Chinese Secret Service

Dan Raviv and Yorsi Melmen, Every Spy a Prince (Israel)

Brian Toohey and William Pinwell, Oyster:  The Story of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service

P. L. de Vosjoli, Lamia (France)

Nigel West, The Circus:  MI5 Operations, 1946-1972 (United Kingdom)

Nigel West, Games of Intelligence


            A.    New intelligence environment

            B.    Multiplication of targets and consumers

            C.    New challenges for collectors and analyses

            D.    New politics of intelligence

            E.    New roles and expectations for intelligence

            F.    Reform in the age of international terrorism


Lowenthal, chapters 11and 12    

9/11 Report (finish reading)

Use your Internet access to scan the US Congress House of                                        Representatives staff report:  “Preparing for the 21st Century:  An                                 Appraisal of US Intelligence” at the following Web site:                                                    http://www.access.gpo.gov/int/report.html                                             


            A.    National security versus democratic freedom

            B.    Ethics and morality in intelligence

            C.    Reorganizing the intelligence community

            D.    The recruiting and training of intelligence professionals

            E.    Needs


Lowenthal, chapters 13 and 14                                       


* * * * * * * * *  FINAL EXAMINATION  (May 3, 2005; 12:15-3:15 p.m.)   * * * * *